Journal of The Pakistan Dental Association
Title Abbreviation: J Pak Dent Assoc
ISSN (Print): 1680-2292
ISSN (Online): 2306-5885
Table of Contents
Volume 25, Issue 2 (April - June 2016)
Ensuring quality of dental care offered to patients by establishing a Provincial Health Care Commission (PHC) in Sindh, Pakistan
Farhan Raza Khan and Syed Sheeraz Hussain
Dental Considerations in a Patient with Pregnancy: A concise review
Shoaib Razi, Samia Ghulam Muhammad and Haroon Rashid
The purpose of this article is to provide basic knowledge for dental students and dental practitioners regarding dental management of pregnant patients in clinical practice. A pregnant female require extensive care, medical monitoring and emotional assistance and it is strongly recommended that a thorough oral health assessment is carried out for pregnant females. It is also important for a dentist to understand and take measures according to patient’s condition such as alteration in the medication and deference of certain elective treatments that may coincide with the organogenesis phase of the fetus and it is recommended that the practitioner consults with the patient’s obstetrician.
Clinical considerations, Drug safety, Oral health care, Pregnancy.
Attitude Towards Own Oral Health and Hygiene: A Survey of Medical and Dental Students of Karachi, Pakistan
Muhammad Salman Rashid, Irfan Ali, Zia Ur Rahman Khan, Sharjeel Bashir, Syed, Mahmood Haider, Nabeel Hafeez, Muhammad Aqeel Aslam and Abdul Hadi Bashir
The aim of the study was to compare the attitude of medical and dental undergraduate students of various medical and dental institutes, towards their own oral hygiene and habits.
This was a questionnaire based analytical cross sectional study conducted in various dental and medical institutes of Karachi. The questionnaires were circulated amongst the selected medical and dental institutes of the city. A total of 1100 undergraduate students filled and returned the questionnaire. Data analysis was done on SPSS Version 14.0 using Chi Square test of associations. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statically significant.
The study shows that medical students (n=663, 60.3%) were more concerned about oral hygiene than dental students (n=437, 39.7%) (p=0.001). Among them females (n=815, 74.1%) were more conscious about oral hygiene than males (n=285, 25.9%) (p=0.001). Clinical students (n=347, 31.5%) were more aware about their hygiene than pre-clinical students (n=753, 68.5%) (p=0.001).
Within the limitations of this study medical students, female gender and students in clinical rotations had better attitude towards own oral health and hygiene.
Oral health, oral hygiene, attitude, dental students.
Location of the Vibrating Line With Respect To Fovea Palatinae in Class I, Class II and Class Ill Soft Palate Types
Bharat Kumar, Asma Naz, Haroon Baloch and Aamir Mahmood Butt
To determine the frequency of the location of vibrating line with respect to fovea palatini in different soft palate types among patients at Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences.
A total of 197 subjects were included in the study and a clinical examination was carried out to examine the location of vibrating line whether it is anterior, posterior or at the fovea palatini in different soft palate types.
The vibrating line was located anteriorly to the palatine fovea in 68%, 70% and 50% of subjects with Class I, II and III soft palate types. The vibrating line coincided with the palatine fovea in 32%, 30% and 50% of the subjects with Class I, II and III soft palates. None of the subject in any soft palate type had the vibrating line present posteriorly to the palatine fovea.
The vibrating line was predominately found anterior to the palatine fovea in subjects with Class I and II soft palate palatini.
Fovea Palatini, Soft Palate, Vibrating line.
An Analysis of Root Canal Treatments in Student Clinics of a Saudi University
Mohammad Mustafa, Shahid Mahmood and Zaid A. Al-Jeaidi
To determine the reasons for root canal treatment (RCT) done in the students' clinics of Prince Sattam Bin AbdulAziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia (PSAU).
Information about Root Canal Treatments (RCT) was collected through specially designed forms. The forms were distributed to the 4th year students of the campus of PSAU. The participants were asked to record details of all root canal treatments carried out by them during a period of one academic year (2015-16), counter-checked by the faculty. The data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22. Frequencies were calculated using simple arithmetical methods.
The data were collected for 202root canal treatments. Irreversible pulpitis (59.9%), necrosis of pulp (22.8%), and previously initiated root canal treatments (13.8%) were the major reasons for RCT.67.6% of the cases had carious exposure. Only 1% of RCT were carried out due to failed RCT, a majority (60%) of which failed because of short obturation. Pre-Operative Radiographic examinations revealed that in 62.9% of the cases, the periapical tissues were normal, while 22.8% of the radiographs showed an evidence of chronic apical periodontitis.
Irreversible pulpitis and Necrosed pulp were the most common reasons for initial root canal treatment while short obturation was the predominant reason for failed root canal treatment.
Failed RCT, Irreversible pulpitis, Necrosed pulp, Root canal treatment.
Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC)
Iqura Khan, Raza Javed, Rizwan Mahmood, Faiza Awais and Ayyaz Ali Khan
The presentation of children with ECC seems to be common in local setting. This study adds to the evidence of existing knowledge of risk factors leading to ECC.
To determine the frequency of ECC and its contributing factors in children of age 6-36 months.
This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 06 months from May 2015 to October 2015, in the Pediatrics Department of Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex, Lahore. 400 children of age 6-36 months were included in the study. Using an interviewer administered questionnaire mothers were asked about their age, literacy level and oral hygiene practices including the child’s feeding method and pattern, teeth cleaning aids and sugar consumption. The oral hygiene (deft and DMFT) of the mothers and their children was examined by three dental surgeons. Chi square test of associations was used for statistical analysis on SPSS software version 21.0.
The frequency of ECC in our study was 26.5%. Data was compared for different risk factors. Child’s feeding method and pattern, oral hygiene aids, sugar consumption and mother’s education was found to be significantly associated with Early Childhood Caries (p<0.05), while gender did not play any significant role in the prevalence of ECC.
Frequency of ECC in patients presenting to the Pediatrics Department of Sheikh Zayed Medical Complex was found to be 26.5%. Dietary habits and mother’s education level was found to have a significant association with frequency of dental caries.
Children, deft, DMFT, Early Childhood Caries, Oral Hygiene.
Influence of post-hydrofluoric acid etch crystalline residue on the bond strength of lithium disilicate ceramic An in vitro study
Zaid A. Al Jeaidi
To evaluate the influence of post hydrofluoric acid (HF acid) etch crystalline residue on the bond strength of lithium disilicate (LD) glass ceramics by means of microtensile bond strength (μ-tbs) testing.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Thirty blocks (4x6x8mm) of LD ceramic were made with pressing furnace utilizing the lost wax technique. Out of these 20 ceramic blocks were subjected to edHF acid (9.5% for 90 sec)and rinsed with water (20 sec). The remaining 10 ceramic blocks were left un-etched to be used as negative controls (group A). Half (n=10) of the etched blocks were only rinsed with water (group B) and the other half (n=10) received post etch cleaning (PEC) (37.5% Phosphoric acid for 1 min, rinse with water for 20 seconds and ultrasonic bath immersion) (group C) of the surface. Silane was applied (5 mins) to all specimens. Ceramic and composite resin blocks were bonded using an adhesive resin and light cured restorative composite as a luting agent, under standard conditions. A total of 360 specimen sticks (8 x 1mm²) were subjected to micro-tensile testing. The means of micro-tensile bond strength (µ-tbs) were analyzed with ANOVA.
The lowest and highest bind value was shown by group A (10.81±3.02) Mpa and group C (39.94±2.58) respectively. Post-etch cleaning of the residue formed on ceramic surface showed significant improvements in μ-tbs value (p=0.01) when compared to un-etched and etched ceramic specimens.
The presence of surface residue and crystalline salts produced after HF acid etch, significantly compromised the microtensile bond strength of LD ceramic to resin. Post etch cleaning of lithium disilicate ceramics significantly improved their microtensile bond strength to resin.
Ceramic, Lithium disilicate, Post-etch cleaning, microtensile bond strength, HF acid etch.
Management of Congenital Enamel Hypoplasia Involving the Incisors and Molars: A Case Report
Badar Munir, Salman Rashid and Sadaf Qadeer
Molar and incisor (MIH) hypoplasia is a condition that effects both permanent and deciduous teeth. The dental tissues once formed and matured cannot be remodeled and thus hypoplasia gets evident on tooth surfaces. The patients presenting with MIH are mainly concerned with the aesthetic issues and the known prevalence of 3.9%1. No significant local data available on MIH. Early diagnosis is important to detect the suspected cause of the disease at the time of formation of the dental tissues; signs and a symptom are different in each age group and also depend upon the underlying cause. Many treatment options are available for MIH. The present case report demonstrates a cost effective management using directly placed composite restorations. Patient was kept on a regular follow up.
Acquired enamel defects, Enamel hypoplasia, Molar incisal hypoplasia.