Journal of The Pakistan Dental Association
Title Abbreviation: J Pak Dent Assoc
ISSN (Print): 1680-2292
ISSN (Online): 2306-5885
Table of Contents
Volume 21, Issue 3 (July - September 2012)
Fazal Ghani , Rafique Moosa
(Pages 127 - 135)
To investigate the influence of the curing method and curing temperature as variables of porosity in poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) denture bases.
Two hundred standardized square-shaped acrylic specimens (2cm2) with thickness of 1 mm were fabricated by using the fabrication techniques of wax pattern, investing, de-waxing, packing and curing. Forty specimens of these (GroupA)were fabricated in self-curing resin.The remaining specimens in GroupB,C,D, and E with 40 specimens in each group were cured by using thermostatically and time controlled water-curing equipment. Specimens in Group B were cured by subjecting them to a curing cycle involving immersion in water at room temperature and raising the temperature to reach boiling and thenmaintaining it for 45 minutes. Specimens in Group C were cured with 70 C & 7 hours curing regimen, Specimens in Group D were processed by the 70 C and 9 hours cycle. Specimens in Group Ewere cured by immersing them in room temperature water and raising the temperature slowly to reach 100 Candmaintaining it for another one hour.After finishing and polishing the specimens, porosity was assessed using scanning electronmicroscopy.The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 14.0.
Specimens in all the four groups displayed varying porosity percentages with both the within and between group variations. The range of the mean percent porosity in the water-cured specimens was 2 to 7 as compared to specimens in Group A (self-curing resin specimens ) exhibiting significantly higher mean porosity percentage of 63.Themean porosity percentwas lowest (2%) in the specimens cured by the 70 Cand 9 hours cycle.
Use of lower curing temperature and prolonged curing time had a beneficial effect on reducing the occurrence of porosity in the acrylic denture bases.
Denture base materials, Polymerization methods, Polymerization cycles Polymerization times Porosity in acrylic denture bases.
Fazal ur Rehman Qazi , Shahbaz Ahmed Jat , Arshad Hasan , Yawar Ali Abidi
(Pages 136 - 140)
The amalgam restorations are associated with postoperative sensitivity which reduces with the passage of time. The objective of this study was to find out the severity of postoperative pain in routinely placed amalgamrestorations.
This yearlong study was conducted at Department of Operative Dentistry, Fatima Jinnah Dental College. It was a cross-sectional study based on one hundred patient’s complaint about pain that they experienced following placement of a restoration of a moderate Class I or II carious lesion. This information was collected by 3 questionnaires, consisting of day 1, 4, and 7 post treatment records.Collected datawas analyzedwith SPSS forwindows version 17 using the Friedman pair test at a ignificance level of 5%.
Forty four out of hundred patients reported postoperative sensitivity and pain on day 1. This number reduced to only nine patients at day 7, havingminor sensitivity,whichwas verymild and reducing in nature.
Postoperative sensitivity in recently placed amalgam restoration subsides in majority of patients after 1week.
Postoperative pain, amalgam, posterior restorations.
Waheed Murad Dahri , Aamir Mehmood Butt , Bilal Ahmed
(Pages 141 - 144)
To see the relationship between intercondylar distance and themaxillary &mandibular intercanine distances in dental students.
One hundred fully dentateBDS studentswith age ranging from21 to 25 years, free fromfacial and dental deformities were examined. Upper and lower arch impressionswere taken using stock trays. Dental cast were made using type IV dental stone. Vernier Caliper was used to measure the linear distances on the cast. Intercondylar distancewasmeasured using arbitrary face bow (Hanau-H2) at rest position. Forkwas attached to the teeth with silicone impression material. Hing axis marks were made 13 mm anterior to the upper border on the tragus canthus lines on both sides of the face .The mark was confirmed by placing the middle fingers of both hands over the marks & students were advised to open & close the jaw by 20mm, the tactile sensation of rotating condyle confirmed the hinge axis location.Every distancewasmeasured three times to ensure the accuracy andmean taken.
The highest correlation was found between Maxillary Intercondylar Distance and Maxillary Intercanine Distance (r = 0·72, P=<0·0001) andMandibular Intercanine Distance (r = 0.309, p = 0.002). The mean intercondylar and maxillary intercanine distance was 1:4.41, while ratio between the mean intercondylar and mandibular intercanine distancewas 1: 6.42.
The observed relationship between the intercondylar and inter-canine distances could prove a useful guide for selection of teeth in edentulous patients.
Esthetics, Complete denture, Edentulous, Tooth arrangement, Intercondylar distance, Intercanine distance
Babur Ashraf Quraishi , Syed Sheeraz Hussain , Arif-ur- Rehman Alvi
(Pages 145 - 152)
The aimof this study is to
1) compare the arch width dimensions in adultswith Class I occlusion to those with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.
2) Compare and calculate difference between maxillary and mandibular archwidth in both groups.
3)Correlate archwidth dimensions for sexual dimorphismwithin the group & between groups.
This was a cross- sectional study conducted atAlvi Dental Hospital & Fatima Jinnah Dental College. A total of 100 Class I subjects (43 males and 57 females) and 85 Class II division 1 (43 males and 42 females) patients, from 13- 24 years of age were included. The inclusion criteria was,(i) having all permanent teeth erupted from 1st molar to 1st molar,(ii) no history of previous orthodontic treatment. Patients with syndromes or grossly carious teeth and posterior cross- biteswere excluded. Intermolar, iniercanine, interalveolar width and arch lengthweremeasured in both arches. Students t- test was used to compare groups.
Meanmaxillary intermolar, intercanine&interalveolarwidth for Class I groupwas 51.6mm, 34.2mm and 59.5mmand forClass II division 1 itwas 49.2mm, 32.5mmand 57.2mm, respectively.Males of both the groupsexhibited larger arch width dimensions than the females indicating significant gender dimorphism. Mean intermolarwidth differencewas 1.2mmforClass I and -1.0 forClass II group
Maxillary dental arch is narrower in Pakistani adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusion, as intermolar, intercanine and interalveolar dimensionswere significantly smaller thanClass I sample (p=.000).Males of both the groups had larger archwidth dimensions than the females.Archwidth difference was negative for Class II group indicating posterior crossbite tendency.
archwidth,Class I,Class II division 1, archwidth difference, sexual dimorphism.
Muhammad Khalil Khan , Abdul Mudassar , Abdul Kareem , Kamran Masood Mirza , Ayyaz Ali Khan , Tasleem Hosein , Shazia Akbar Ansari
(Pages 153 - 156)
Role of oral hygiene products and devices are very important in our daily life for disease free oral cavity. Many chemotherapeutic dentifrices in the form of powder and pastes are available in the market with the claim of anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis and anti-staining etc. properties. o compare the long-term efficacy of tooth powder with that of the toothpaste.
Total 160 subjects (80 toothpaste users and 80 tooth-powder users) were enrolled in this study and Community Periodontal IndexTreatment Needs (CPITN) was used to access the periodontal health.
In this cross-sectional study there is no significant CPITN score difference among the toothpaste and tooth powder users. Only CPITN score 2 is high in both groups 37.1%in toothpaste users and 38.8%in tooth powder users.
The results of this study support the use of tooth powder for daily maintenance of oral health.
Toothpowder,Toothpaste, Community Periodontal Index (CPITN)
Nabiha Farasat Khan , Mohammad Saeed , Saima Chaduhary , Farkhanda Ghafoor , Bilquees A Suleman , Ayyaz Ali Khan , Muhammad Aasim
(Pages 157 - 160)
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis or RAS is a chronic oral ulcer of unknown etiology which affects about 50% of the world population. Pakistan is a developing country where Nutritional anemia is common. The purpose of the study was to identify the effect of hematinic deficiencies (Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, B-12, Ferritin and Folate) in subjectswithRAS and the frequency site and severity ofRAS in these Patients
It was anAnalytical Cross-Sectional study carried out in Dental Department, Shaikh Zayed FPGMI, Lahore from February-July 2008. Sixty subjects with active RAS during last six months were recruited. Proformawas filled by asking the subjects about the severity and frequency of their ulcers. To check site of aphthae, ulcers were clinically examined. Blood samples were taken. Radio-Immuno-Assay (B12 and Folate) and Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay (Ferritin) was carried out. Association between hematological parameters characteristic ofRASwas done usingChi-square test.
Buccal and labial mucosa was most frequently affected (23.3%) followed by the tongue (21.7%). Severely painful ulcers were observed in 93% (n=56) of the study subjects. Deficiency Vit B-12 and RBC folate were significantly associated (p<0.01) with severity of ulcer while deficiency of serum Ferritin was significantly associated (0.03)with frequency of ulcers, in the present study.
Hematological parameters studied are associated with site of occurrence of RAS and its severity in the present study population.
OralUlcers,RAS,Deficient VitB-12, SerumFerritin,RBCFolate, Frequency, Severity and Site.
Mahjabeen Khan , Nadia Sultan Ali , Nasreen Qamar , Amyna Sajwani , Mashal Butt , Samrin Riaz
(Pages 161 - 166)
The objective of this study was to determine the oral health status of breastfed infants (6 to 24) months and the associated risk factors for poor oral health of lowsocial groups inKarachi Pakistan.
This is an observational study and involves the recruitment of 910 infants. The infants were from disadvantaged communities from rural area of Gadap Town in Karachi, Pakistan. Data on feeding practices and infant’s oral health was collected. The data was analyzed on Statistical package for social sciences windows version 15
The oral examination of infants had resulted in 59.2 %good oral health. Breastfeeding practices were observed as exclusive 400 (44%) and predominant 360 (39.6%). The study found a significant association between oral health and exclusive and predominant breastfeeding practices with p-value less than or equal to ≤ 0.05. The risk factors associated with poor oral health were infant`s age, male gender, maternal body mass index, exclusive or predominant breastfeeding.
The good oral healthwas found in two third of breastfed infants between six to 24 months of age and the associated risk factors for poor oral health in lowsocial class include lowmaternal bodymass index, infants` age,male infants and pretermbabies.
Oral health,Breastfed infants,Exclusive breastfeeding, Predominant breastfeeding
Talha M Siddiqui , Aisha Wali , Noman Qamar
(Pages 173 - 176)
The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of two canals in maxillary second premolars in patients from Gadap area attending Out Patient Department at Baqai dental College.
The study included 100 patients requiring root canal therapy, out of which 32 were females and 68 weremales. Two periapical radiographs were taken at different angulations, numbers of canals were visible on the X-ray were recorded and then verified clinically upon access opening. Frequency and percentages was analyzed by using SPSS 19.0
We observed type-I canal configuration in16%, type II in 49%, type III in 12%and type IVin 23%.
It is concluded that the occurrence of two canals in maxillary premolars was high in our study population.Type II canal configuration is themost prevalent among our sample followed by type IVand type I
maxillary second premolar, root canal morphology, Vertucci’s classification, frequency of two canals inmaxillary second premolar
Gregori M. Kurtzman , Lanka Mahesh , Irfan Qureshi
(Pages 177 - 181)
Hemisection ofmandibularmolars may be a viable treatment optionwhenVertical root fracture has occurred in one of the roots and the other root is healthy. Acasewill be presented discussing the techniques involved in hemisection and restoration of the remaining tooth.
Hemisection, vertical root fracture, post and core
Fahim Ahmed Vohra , Haroon Rasheed
(Pages 182 - 187)
Common problems for Edentulous patients, specially mandibular, include poor retention and stability, compromised function and comfort and low self confidence and quality of life. The range of treatment options for edentulous mandible include a removable conventional denture, implant retained mucosa supported and implant retained implant supported overdentures, implant supported fixed hybrid prosthesis and implant retained porcelain fused to metal prosthesis. The factors vital in decision making include the amount of bone loss, availability of interocclusal space, anatomic constraints at potential implant sites, opposing dentition, available cost and time and patient preference for fixed or removable prosthesis. A two Impant retained mucosa supported overdenture is proposed to be the first line of treatment for edentulous mandible patients both in the McGill and York consensus reports. The statement indicates ( McGill consensus report) that as a minimal treatment objective, the mandibular two-implant overdenture (as opposed to a conventional denture) should be considered as a first-choice standard of care for the edentulous patient. This article presents two clinical cases of mandibular implant overdentures, highlighting the effectiveness of this treatment option for edentulous patients.